Tuesday, 26 October 2010
Monday, 25 October 2010
It has been said that architecture without Alexandros Tombazis would be like poetry without Yiannis Ritsos
In his book, architect Alexandros Tombazis advocates environmentally respectful buildings
In his advice to young architects, the distinguished architect Alexandros N. Tombazis repeatedly expresses an environmental concern. “Remember that building, which is what architecture is all about, means injuring our planet. So be gentle, tread lightly, for we have only one of its kind,” he writes in “Letter to a Young Architect”, a book published by Libro and presented on the occasion of a retrospective exhibition on his work currently on display at the Benaki Museum.
Back in the 1960s, Tombazis began to explore the use of solar energy and other natural sources in architecture and soon became a pioneer of bioclimatic architecture in Greece. His respect for the environment is one of the traits that recurs in the exhibition “The Invisible Thread: Alexandros Tombazis, a Retrospective”. The exhibition, organized by the Benaki Museum in collaboration with the Hellenic Institute of Architecture andAristotle University’s Architecture Department in the School of Engineering, places photos and maquettes of the architect’s works in chronological order. It also presents a film documentary by Apostolos Karakasis on the architect’s work and a video showing a discussion between Tombazis and the Portuguese architect Alvaro Siza. A series of drawings and photos that the architect took during his various travels around the world are included to suggest the connections that Tombazis finds in different fields of art.
In the exhibition, the variety of projects that A.N. Tombazis and Associate Architects has undertaken since 1963, when the office was established, becomes immediately apparent. Many of them completed outside Greece, the projects include the design of the Bin Madiya Mosque in Dubai (1982-86), the Greek Refinery Headquarters (1994-95), Cyprus University, the Candia Park Village resort in the area of Aghios Nikolaos in Crete (1988-90), the refurbishment, in collaboration with Harry Bougadellis and Associates,
of the Athens Hilton Hotel and the Stavanger Concert Hall in Norway (2001).
Structures designed to allow optimum sunlight to stream in
and bioclimatic design features are two of the most important threads that connect the various projects.
In the case of the the AVAX SA office buildings, which the Tombazis firm designed in 1992-93, bioclimatic features include a control system that measures the outdoor lighting levels and adjusts interior lighting accordingly and another system that controls ventilation and shading, therefore reducing energy consumption. The offices of the Cyprus Electricity Authority were designed in the late 1990s with similar bioclimatic concerns.
“Remember to make the climate your friend and not your enemy. After all, it is much stronger than you are and can be very vengeful,” Tombazis tells young architects in the Libro book. At a time of ecological crisis, this piece of advice rings more urgently than ever. As an architect, Tombazis made the protection of the environment his responsibility. The purpose is both environmental and social. “Remember that, above all, architecture is a social art which has to serve society. Your work will affect the lives of many human beings for many years to come. Winston Churchill once said, ‘We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us,’” Tombazis concludes.
Tombazis is also a prolific writer, artist and photographer, and continues to travel around the world, putting down his impressions in his paintings, sketches and photographs.
His new book, "Ecological Thought and Architecture", which will circulate in November by Melissa publications, is addressed to the wider public and aims to acquaint the public with bioclimatic architecture, while the renovated Pedion tou Areos Park is also slated to reopen in November complete with 90,000 new plants and trees, two renovated theaters and a new skateboard park.
Sunday, 24 October 2010
Saturday, 23 October 2010
The earliest known structure on the site was the Convent of Santa Isabel, whose church was built in 1680. However, significant Aztec finds, such as a sacrificial altar in the shape of aplumed serpent have been found here. The convent area suffered frequent flooding during the early colonial period and development here grew slowly. In spite of this, the convent remained until it was forcibly closed in the 1860s by the Reform Laws. It was replaced by a textile mill and lower-class housing.
A section of this housing, on Santa Isabel Alley, was torn down and replaced by the National Theater in the latter 19th century. During the late 19th century and ve
ry early 20th, this theatre was the site of most of Mexico City’s high
culture, presenting events such as theatre, operettas, Viennese dance and more. It was then decided to replace this building with a more opulent one for the upcoming Centennial of Mexican Independence celebrations in 1910. The old theatre was demolished in 1901, and the new theatre would be called the Gran Teatro de Ópera. The work was awarded to Italian architect Adamo Boari, who favored n
eoclassical and art nouveau styles and who is responsible for thePalacio del Correo which is across the street. Adamo Boari promised in October of 1904 to build grand metallic structure, which at that time only existed in the United States, but not to this size. The first stone of the building was place by Porfirio Díaz in 1904.Despite the 1910 deadline, by 1913, the building was hardly begun with only a basic shell. One reason for this is that the project became more complicated than anticipated as the heavy building sank into the soft spon
gy subsoil. The other reason was the political and economic instability that would lead to the Mexican Revolution
. Full hostilities suspended construction of the palace completely and Adamo Boari returned to Italy.
The project would sit unfinished for about twenty years. In 1932, construction resumed under Mexican architect Federico Mariscal. Mariscal completed the interior but updated it from Boari’s plans to the more modern Art Deco style. The building was completely finished in 1934, and was inaugurated on 29 September of that year. The inaugural work presented in the theatre was "La Verdad Sospec
hosa" by Juan Ruiz d
e Alarcón in 1934. In 1946, the Instituto Nacional de Bellas Artes (National Institute of the Fine Arts) was created as a government agency to promote the arts and was initially housed at the Museo Nacional de Artes Plasticas, the Museo del Libro and other places. It is now at the Palacio.
In this theatre, Maria Callas debuted in the opera “N
orma” in 1950.
In 2002, the Palace was the scene of the funeral of María Félix.
Since its initial construction, very little has been updated or modified. However, intensive renovation efforts were begun in 2009 for the upcoming 2010 celebrations. Much of the equipment an
d machinery is original from the early 20th century. Much of the technological equipment
is being updated, especially in the theatre which needs computerized lights, sound systems and other improvements. Other work will improve the acoustics.Upgrades to the theatre
will allow for multimedia shows which were not available before. The main hall has had no renovation or upgrade work since it opened in 1934. Renovations here will lessen the number of people the hall can accommodate but should make the area more comfortable.
The interior is also surfaced in Carrera marble.It divides into three sections: the main hall with adjoining smaller exhibition halls
, the theatre and the offices of the I
nsituto Nacional de Bellas Artes. The main hall is covered by the Marotti glass and iron roof. It and the balconies of all three upper floors can be seen from the ground floor below. In areas of the main hall, pre-Hispanic motifs done in Art De
smaller exhibition halls are located on the first and second floors. The first floor is decorated with crystal lamps, created by Edgar Brandt and hold murals by Rufino Tamayo. The Adamo Boari and Manuel E. Ponce halls hold music and literature events. And the National and International halls are for exhibitions. The second floor h
as smaller exhibition halls as well as murals by José Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siqueiros, Diego Rivera,Jorge González Camarena, Roberto Montenegro and Manuel Rodríguez Lozano. The third floor is occupied by the Museum of Architecture. The ironwork was designed in Italy by Alessandro Mazzucotelli and in Mexico by Luis Romero Soto.
At the entrance of the theatre, there are mascarons in bronze with depictions of Tlaloc, and Chac, the Aztec and Mayan deities of water, which along with the rest were designed by Gianette Fiorenzo. On the arch over the stage are representations of various mythological personas such as th
e Muses with Apollo. This was con
structed in Hungary in the workshops of Geza Maroti. However, the most impacting aspect is the stage “curtain” which is a stained glass foldable panel creat
ed out of nearly a million pieces of iridescent pieces of colored glass by Tiffany’s in New York.This stage
curtain is the only one of its type in any opera house in the world and weighs 24 tons.The design of the curtain has the volcanos Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl in the center. Around them is a Mexican landscape and this is surrounded by images of sculptures from Yautepec and Oaxaca.
This design was inspired by work done by artist Gerardo Murillo (Dr. Atl). The theatre has a capacity of 1,000.
Individual events that have been held here are numerous. Some of these include several exhibitions of Frida Kahlo’s work, and a number of appearances by Luciano Pavarotti.Other appearances have been made by Mexican baritone Jorge Lagunes (2002) and Catalan guitarist Joan Manuel Serrat (2003).Also Philip Glass with his Ensemble, and special guests perform Philip Glass’ multi-cultu
ral work ORION(2010).
Events that have been held here include “ABCDF Palabras de Ciudad” (2002) showing life in popular housing in photographs and video, “Bordados del Mexico Antiguo” (Embro
idery of Old Mexico) showing processes, history and design,Rem Koolhaas Premio Pritzker 2000" conference and “Exchanging Views: Visions of Latin America” which was an exhibit from the collection of Patricia Phelps de Cisneros comprising 148 works by 72 artists from acros
s Latin America in 2006.
Boari was born in Marrara at Ferrara. He stu died at the University of Ferrara and af terwards at the University of Bologna where he gra dua ted in 1886.
After he had done some works in Turin he went to Bra
zil in 1889 where he had to or ganize an ex hi bi tion. After vi sit ing the coun try es pe cially the city of Buenos Aires and the city of Montevideo and after re co ver ing from yellow fever he went to the United Sta tes where he lived in Chicago. In 1899 he got per mis sion to work in the United Sta tes as an ar chi tect. In 1903 he went to Mexico where he be came known for his works at se veral churches in 1898, for the con struc tion of the »Templo Expiatorio« in 1899 (temple of expiation) and for his mo nu ment of Porfirio Díaz (1890). So he was com mis sio ned to the con struc
tion of the Palacio de Bel las Artes and of the Palacio de Cor reos de Mexico in Mexico City. Some of his works he did at the bu reau of Frank Lloyd Wright. ThePalacio de Correos was fi nis hed in 1907. Alt hough Boari began with the con struc tion of the Palacio de Bel las Artes in 1901 he could not fi nish his work due to the up co m ing revolution and re sul ting tech ni cal and fi nan cial pro blems.
In 1916 h
e re tur ned to Italy where he lead the con struc tion of the new thea tre of Ferrara which was fi nis hed by his bro ther Sesto. Some de tails of this b
uil ding are re mi nis cent of the Me xi can Palacio de Bel las Artes. Boari died in Rome in 1928.
The Palacio de Bellas Artes was fi nis hed after his death.
Friday, 22 October 2010
Sunday, 17 October 2010
Fashion is architecture:
it is a matter of proportions.
The form of the Chanel Pavilion is a celebration of the iconic work of Chanel, unmistakeable for its smooth layering of exquisite details that together create an elegant, cohesive whole. The resulting structure is very much tied to that original inspirationâ€”elegant, functional, and versatile both in its overall structure and detail.
The architectural structure of the Pavilion is a series of continuous arch-shaped elements, with a courtyard in its central space. The glazed ceiling adjusts to allow for control of the interior temperature in response to the particular climate conditions of each venue city.
Natural light descending from seven elements on the ceiling, meets artificial light pushed up from gap between the walls and raised floor to emphasize the â€œarchedâ€? structure, and assists in the creation of a new artificial landscape for art installations. Six of these elements are roof lights for artworks; another large opening dramatically floods the entrance in daylight to blur the relationship between interior and exterior. In addition to the lighting and colour effects, the spatial rhythm created by the seams of each segment gives strong perspective views throughout the interior.
The size of the Pavilion will be 29m x 45m, a total of 700sqm. The overall height is 6m, with the floor raised 1.00m above the existing ground surface. In light of the extensive shipping between cities, each structural segment will be a maximum of 2,25m wide.
The 65sqm central courtyard has large transparent openings to the sky above and is designed to host events as well as provide an area for reflection after visiting the exhibition. The courtyard serves as an intermediate space between the exhibition and a public area of the Pavilion. A 25sqm cloakroom is also provided.
With a direct visual connection to the courtyard, the 128sqm terrace continues this dialogue between the Pavilionâ€™s exterior and interior. During an event, the two spaces could be linked to become one large event zone.
Reflective materials allow the exterior skin to be illuminated with varying colours which can be tailored to the differing programmes of special events in each city.
The dichotomy between the powerful sculptural mass of the Chanel Pavilionâ€™s structure and the lightness of its envelope create a bold and enigmatic element. The Pavilionâ€™s exterior develops into a rich variety of interior spaces that maximize the potential to reuse and rethink space due to the innate flexibility of its plan.
The total fluidity of the Chanel Pavilionâ€™s curvilinear geometries is an obvious continuation of Hadidâ€™s 30-years of exploration and research into systems of continuous transformations and smooth transitions. With this repertoire of morphology, Zaha Hadid is able to translate the ephemeral typology of a pavilion into the sensual forms required for this celebration of Chanelâ€™s cultural importance.